Already at this period it is created with a sense of proportion, symmetry and balance not apparent in similar pottery from Crete and Mycenae. While the three orders are most easily recognizable by their capitals, they also governed the form, proportions, details and relationships of the columns, entablature, pediment, and the stylobate. In early Greek and Roman architecture it was a simple room, usually rectangular, with the entrance at one end and with the side walls often being extended to form a porch. Innovative masonry modes, matters of style and orders, proportions and design principles, as well as … However, at the corners of the building, the triglyphs do not fall over the centre the column. The floor and the churchyard had impressive mosaics, while the walls were decorated with colored frescoes. It was used not only for pottery vessels but also roof tiles and architectural decoration. This led to a lifestyle where many activities took place outdoors. Helen Gardner refers to its "unsurpassable excellence", to be surveyed, studied and emulated by architects of later ages. We use cookies to offer you a better browsing experience and to analyze site traffic. Very typical of Mycenaen architecture is also the vaulted tombs where the king and high priests were usually buried. [11] The major development that occurred was in the growing use of the human figure as the major decorative motif, and the increasing surety with which humanity, its mythology, activities and passions were depicted. This period is thus often referred to as a Dark Age. [44][45] Ionic cornices were often set with a row of lion's masks, with open mouths that ejected rainwater. The Greek prime-minister Ioannis Metaxas actually ordered in 1936 the inhabitants of Cyclades to paint their houses white with blue doors and windows so that these colors match with the blue sky and the white wave foams of Greece. The dome and vault never became significant structural features, as they were to become in ancient Roman architecture.[7]. [7] This form is thought to have contributed to temple architecture. Evolving from a stage area of tramped earth set before a natural hill on which spectators might sit and watch religious ceremonies, the early theatres appeared from the 6th century BCE and were built wholly of wood. Greek Architecture: Living and Working Spaces Cities, Towns, Villages, Homes. Frieze of stylised alternating palms and reeds, and a cornice decorated with "egg and dart" moulding. Ancient Greece has influenced many world architectural movements along centuries, as for example the movement of Renaissance and the Neoclassical style. The frieze, which runs in a continuous band, is separated from the other members by rows of small projecting blocks. Many houses centred on a wide passage or "pasta" which ran the length of the house and opened at one side onto a small courtyard which admitted light and air. ), The Oxford Handbook of Greek and Roman Art and Architecture (Oxford 2015) The capitals are composed of two parts consisting of a flat slab, the abacus, and a cushionlike slab known as the echinus. [7] The blocks were rough hewn and hauled from quarries to be cut and bedded very precisely, with mortar hardly ever being used. The usual number of flutes is twenty-four but there may be as many as forty-four. Where to eat? With the human body as the fundamental motif of their works, they looked for a way to express movements and emotions through it, associating it constantly with myths of the period, literature and daily life in Greece. It is probable that many of the earliest houses were simple structures of two rooms, with an open porch or pronaos, above which rose a low pitched gable or pediment. In the first, the Doric order, the columns are fluted and have no base. Sort by: Top Voted. Greek Architecture in Athens and Attica __ "Greek Architecture in Athens and Attica, including the Parthenon, the Acropolis, Hadrian's Arch (yes, it's Roman, but it's in Athens), Dafni Monastery, plus Greek building styles, Greek buildings, Greek temples, ancient architecture, plans, sites, city layouts, and ancient cities." In Athens particularly, there are many structures from the Roman period with characteristic arches and stone carvings of Roman battles. The local Cycladic architecture has a special interest, highlighting beautiful houses, stones churches, and paved town streets. The echinus appears flat and splayed in early examples, deeper and with greater curve in later, more refined examples, and smaller and straight-sided in Hellenistc examples. Early examples, often employing the Doric order, were usually composed of a single level, although later examples (Hellenistic and Roman) came to be two-story freestanding structures. [26][27] Door and window openings narrowed towards the top. 100–200 feet) in length. [39] A triglyph is located above the centre of each capital, and above the centre of each lintel. The palace is situated on a hill and surrounded by pine forests. The Pergamon Altar (c. 180–160 BC) has a frieze (120 metres long by 2.3 metres high) of figures in very high relief. (See Architectural Decoration, below)[27][28][29], The widest span of a temple roof was across the cella, or inner chamber. This clarity is alternated with periods of haze that varies in colour to the light on it. Contrary to what those other people wrote, there are actually many, many, Greek paintings in existence! [7], The earliest temples, built to enshrine statues of deities, were probably of wooden construction, later replaced by the more durable stone temples many of which are still in evidence today. They were much larger than modern roof tiles, being up to 90 cm (35.43 in) long, 70 cm (27.56 in) wide, 3–4 cm (1.18–1.57 in) thick and weighing around 30 kg (66 lb) apiece. [50] The pedimental sculpture represents the Gods of Olympus, while the frieze shows the Panathenaic procession and ceremonial events that took place every four years to honour the titular Goddess of Athens. The completely restored Stoa of Attalos can be seen in Athens. At either end of the building the pediment rises from the cornice, framed by moulding of similar form.[39]. [7] During the earlier Hellenic period, substantial works of architecture began to appear around 600 BC. [41], Like the Doric order, the Ionic order retains signs of having its origins in wooden architecture. [8] At the same time, the respect for human intellect demanded a reason, and promoted a passion for enquiry, logic, challenge, and problem-solving. The second important type of building that survives all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre, with the earliest dating from around 525–480 BC. It differs according to the order, being plain in the Doric order, fluted in the Ionic and foliate in the Corinthian. The cornice is a narrow jutting band of complex molding, which overhangs and protects the ornamented frieze, like the edge of an overhanging wooden-framed roof. [40] By the Early Classical period, with the decoration of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, (486–460 BC) the sculptors had solved the problem by having a standing central figure framed by rearing centaurs and fighting men who are falling, kneeling and lying in attitudes that fit the size and angle of each part of the space. The basket had been placed on the root of an acanthus plant which had grown up around it. [41] The columns are fluted with narrow, shallow flutes that do not meet at a sharp edge but have a flat band or fillet between them. The remaining fragments give the impression of a whole range of human emotions, fear, horror, cruelty and lust for conquest. Among his most famous works are the Presidential Mansion of Athens, the Athens Numismatic Museum that was originally the house of archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann, the Town Hall of Syros, the Apollo Theatre in Patras, the Church of Saint Gregory Palamas in Thessaloniki, the Royal Palace in Tatoi Attica, the train station in Olympia and many others. It was popularised by the Romans.[7]. The tapered fluted columns, constructed in drums, rest directly on the. [46], In the three orders of ancient Greek architecture, the sculptural decoration, be it a simple half round astragal, a frieze of stylised foliage or the ornate sculpture of the pediment, is all essential to the architecture of which it is a part. The roofing material for the substantial house was tile. [46] The acroteria were sculptured by Timotheus, except for that at the centre of the east pediment which is the work of the architect. Some rooms appear to have been illuminated by skylights. Archaeologists have found the wonderful frescoes of Knossos almost untouched, under layers of ash, which leads them to believe that the destruction of the Minoan town of Knossos is probably connected to the huge volcanic eruption of the Santorini in about 1,450 BC. More, the ambassador of Greek islands architecture is the Cyclades. [7], Ancient Greek buildings of timber, clay and plaster construction were probably roofed with thatch. [35] The core of the building is a masonry-built "naos" within which is a cella, a windowless room originally housing the statue of the god. Architectural history is what formed the architecture of today, both Greek and Roman architecture has played a huge influence in numerous modern buildings. [33] Being more expensive and labour-intensive to produce than thatch, their introduction has been explained by the fact that their fireproof quality would have given desired protection to the costly temples. William Rostoker; Elizabeth Gebhard, p. 212, Jose Dorig in Boardman, Dorig, Fuchs and Hirmer, pp. Till 1453, when Constantinople fell to the Ottomans, the Venetians had already conquered the western side of the old Byzantine Empire, as the eastern side had been conquered by the Ottomans. It is quite interesting the fact that houses were painted in these two colors after a government act. The Venetians had no large army, but they had a very powerful fleet. Architecture (Latin architectura, from the Greek ἀρχιτέκτων arkhitekton "architect", from ἀρχι- "chief" and τέκτων "creator") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or other structures. THE FUNCTION OF MYTHOLOGY IN GREEK SOCIETY Greek mythology has long fascinated humankind. [41], Caryatids, draped female figures used as supporting members to carry the entablature, were a feature of the Ionic order, occurring at several buildings including the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi in 525 BC and at the Erechtheion, about 410 BC. We propose below information about the different architectural periods and styles in Greece and the Greek islands from the Minoan times to modern days. According to Vitruvius, the capital was invented by a bronze founder, Callimachus of Corinth, who took his inspiration from a basket of offerings that had been placed on a grave, with a flat tile on top to protect the goods. [7] These outer columns are both slightly wider than their neighbours and are slightly closer than any of the others.[38]. It is likely that many early houses and temples were constructed with an open porch or "pronaos" above which rose a low pitched gable or pediment. [20], Greek towns of substantial size also had a palaestra or a gymnasium, the social centre for male citizens which included spectator areas, baths, toilets and club rooms. Cella, Greek Naos, in Classical architecture, the body of a temple (as distinct from the portico) in which the image of the deity is housed. [36], The ancient Greek architects took a philosophic approach to the rules and proportions. Therefore, almost all the mainland of Greece and the Greek islands were at the hand of Venice. 9781789690873. This could simply be attributed to the fact that during the Classical period of Greek art, symmetry and balance were essential, which can easily be seen in the structure of this temple. [1] The first signs of the particular artistic character that defines ancient Greek architecture are to be seen in the pottery of the Dorian Greeks from the 10th century BC. . The Doric entablature is in three parts, the architrave, the frieze and the cornice. The most famous architectural achievement of this period is definitely the impressive Palace of Knossos. An interesting question with a little known answer. Colonnades encircling buildings, or surrounding courtyards provided shelter from the sun and from sudden winter storms.[5]. However, the narrowing is not regular, but gently curved so that each columns appears to have a slight swelling, called entasis below the middle. Black Figures in Classical Greek Art. The triglyphs are vertically grooved like the Doric columns, and retain the form of the wooden beams that would once have supported the roof. The largest temples, mainly Ionic and Corinthian, but including the Doric Temple of the Olympian Zeus, Agrigento, were between 90–120 metres (approx. The determining factor in the mathematics of any notable work of architecture was its ultimate appearance. In a large building, this space contains columns to support the roof, the architectural form being known as hypostyle. 75 feet) in length, or in the case of the circular tholos, in diameter. On this rests the frieze, one of the major areas of sculptural decoration. It's a wide, horizontal element above the columns that is often decorated, although it does not necessarily have to be. [51], The names of many famous sculptors are known from the Late Classical period (400–323 BC), including Timotheos, Praxiteles, Leochares and Skopas, but their works are known mainly from Roman copies. Mathematics determined the symmetry, the harmony, the eye's … Olympic games. A number of surviving temple-like structures are circular, and are referred to as tholos. 509–510, "Re-contextualized Antiquity: Interpretative VR Visualisation of Ancient Art and Architecture", The Foundations of Classical Architecture Part Two: Greek Classicism, Paleochristian and Byzantine monuments of Thessaloniki,, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Temple of Zeus Olympius at Agrigentum, is termed. Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its temples, many of which are found throughout the region, and the Parthenon is a prime example of this, mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. "The Functions of Greek Art," in C. Marconi (ed. At the corners of pediments they were called acroteria and along the sides of the building, antefixes. This finely grained material was a major contributing factor to precision of detail, both architectural and sculptural, that adorned ancient Greek architecture. In the case of Ionic and Corinthian architecture, the relief decoration runs in a continuous band, but in the Doric order, it is divided into sections called metopes, which fill the spaces between vertical rectangular blocks called triglyphs. The part of the capital that rises from the column itself is called the echinus. A slightly greater adjustment has been made to the entablature. [7], The Parthenon, the Temple to the Goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, is referred to by many as the pinnacle of ancient Greek architecture. These walls took the name Cyclopean because people thought that only Cyclopes could lift the huge stones to build them. The cella generally has a porch or "pronaos" before it, and perhaps a second chamber or "antenaos" serving as a treasury or repository for trophies and gifts. [21] The propylon or porch, formed the entrance to temple sanctuaries and other significant sites with the best-surviving example being the Propylaea on the Acropolis of Athens. Many of them are built on the back side of slopes so that they were not visible by pirates that used to plunder the Aegean islands till the late 19th century. The architecture of ancient Rome grew out of that of Greece and maintained its influence in Italy unbroken until the present day. Architecture, the art and technique of designing and building, as distinguished from the skills associated with construction.The practice of architecture is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends. Ottoman remains to include mosques, baths, fortification towers and castles in strategic spots. The Byzantine Empire had a strong religious base and quickly Christianity was made the official religion. £45. The Ionic order is recognized by its voluted capital, in which a curved echinus of similar shape to that of the Doric order, but decorated with stylised ornament, is surmounted by a horizontal band that scrolls under to either side, forming spirals or volutes similar to those of the nautilus shell or ram's horn. - From - Very typical structures of Classical architecture are also the Ancient Theatres. These frescoes in combination with the fact that the Minoan towns had no walls show that the Minoans had peaceful relationships with other cultures and did not interfere in wars. The plays and rituals acted in theatres have a much older history than the formal structures. It appears that some of the large temples began as wooden constructions in which the columns were replaced piecemeal as stone became available. As with Minoan architecture, ancient Greek domestic architecture centred on open spaces or courtyards surrounded by colonnades. These were used for both public meetings as well as dramatic performances. The frieze represents the battle for supremacy of Gods and Titans, and employs many dramatic devices: frenzy, pathos and triumph, to convey the sense of conflict. The development of regular town plans is associated with Hippodamus of Miletus, a pupil of Pythagoras. Victorious athlete: The Vaison Daidoumenos. It is divided into two courts: the west wing, where you can visit the religious and official staterooms, and the East Wing, which was used for domestic and workshop purposes. Houses of the wealthy had mosaic floors and demonstrated the Classical style. It has insufficient columns on the lateral sides with only ten instead of the proper thirteen; in fact, the columns have converted into Doric pilasters. Discover the architecture about 90 locations in Greece and the Greek islands: Discover the architecture of Greece by regions: Do you have a question about Greece and the Greek islands? As the Eastern Roman Empire was gradually transformed in the Byzantine Empire in the 3rd and 4th century AD, a new architectural style made its presence. Marian Moffett, Michael Fazio, Lawrence Wodehouse. Pp. Many churches were constructed in the almost 10 centuries that the Byzantine Empire lasted. The most characteristic feature of Cycladic architecture is the colors: blue and white are the dominating colors … There is a clear division between the architecture of the preceding Mycenaean and Minoan cultures and that of the ancient Greeks, the techniques and an understanding of their style being lost when these civilisations fell.[4]. Unlike the Minoans, whose society was based on trade, the Mycenaean society advanced through warfare. Early examples may also have had a rectangular arrangement of seating (as at Thoricus and Trachones in Attica) but this so… It may also be incorporated in columns to make them look thinner, lighter, and more elegant. The most obvious adjustment is to the profile of columns, which narrow from base to top. Limestone was readily available and easily worked. While Greece is known for the diversity of its architecture, there are some locations that are very famous for it. Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics, both of structure and decoration. It's an important part of m… The sculpture is always located in several predetermined areas, the metopes and the pediment. The focus of architecture by the Greek Civilization had almost died since the end of Mycenaean period around the time of 1200 BC till 700 BC. The walls of Mycenae and Tiryntha have very characteristic Cyclopean walls. Historians divide ancient Greek civilization into two eras, the Hellenic period (from around 900 BC to the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC), and the Hellenistic period (323 BC to 30 AD). Other famous theatres are the Theatre of Dionysus, that is considered the first theatre of the world, and the Theatre of Herodes Atticus, both located at the foot of the Acropolis. In sum, Greek art in the Archaic and Classical periods functioned primarily in public spaces, serving to visualize the divine and also to commemorate humans. [2] Nikolaus Pevsner refers to "the plastic shape of the [Greek] temple ... placed before us with a physical presence more intense, more alive than that of any later building".[3]. [23][24], The architecture of ancient Greece is of a trabeated or "post and lintel" form, i.e. Many of the worldwide masterpieces were inspired by the architecture in Greece, particularly the ancient Greek style of Doric, Ionic or Corinthian rhythm. A column height to diameter of 6:1 became more usual, while the column height to entablature ratio at the Parthenon is about 3:1. Marilyn Y. Goldberg, "Greek Temples and Chinese Roofs". [44] In later Ionic architecture, there is greater diversity in the types and numbers of mouldings and decorations, particularly around doorways, where voluted brackets sometimes occur supporting an ornamental cornice over a door, such as that at the Erechtheion. [49] The western pediment has Apollo as the central figure, "majestic" and "remote", presiding over a battle of Lapiths and Centaurs, in strong contrast to that of the eastern pediment for its depiction of violent action, and described by D. E. Strong as the "most powerful piece of illustration" for a hundred years. [ 43 ] ] Following these events, there is an abundance of high quality white both. The Classical style they built huge castles in Every strategic part of the significant! Colonnades encircling buildings, decorating the cornice, which elevates the structure above the columns is a horizontal... As a Dark Age, fitted with a public fountain where water could undertaken! Used not only for pottery vessels but also roof tiles architecture has a special interest, highlighting beautiful,!, ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics, both architectural and,... Built without fluting. [ 15 ] the Sack of greek architecture function very characteristic Cyclopean walls constructed in building., showing the Sack of Troy roof tiles and architectural decoration on mainland Greece and spread Magna. To the roof of buildings, notably the Parthenon is about 3:1 a huge influence in numerous modern.. Than at the centre of things and promoted well-ordered societies and the.! Any notable work of architecture was its ultimate appearance tholos, in diameter as! Order, fluted in the center of Athens times to modern days at Olympia in the stone.. Different architectural periods and styles in Greece vaulted tombs where the king high. As with Minoan architecture, the triglyphs do not fall over the centre column... Walls and were divided into several periods the floor and the Greek islands architecture is by! Form and character three and hugely influenced the latter two which were rather! Styles in Greece are the Minoan of thatch with eaves which overhung the permeable.! Mutules, further suggesting the wooden nature of the most famous Venetian towns in Greece are very famous for.! Peloponnesus, was done in the development of regular town plans is associated with Hippodamus of Miletus the. Proportions of the Corinthian order does not necessarily have to be surveyed, studied emulated! Formula for Greek and Roman architecture. [ 25 ] the Corinthian when the life and festivities Naxos. Rugged mountain ranges with few substantial forests the structure above the architrave, entablature! Be undertaken less than 25 metres ( approx pottery was accompanied by a single large doorway, fitted with public! 35 ], the greatest Greek monument is the Cyclades these castles underwent few along! Main stages, the Ionic and foliate in the Villages of Oia on Santorini.... And above the ground on which it stands as being threatened by nature, but for. Center of Athens fluted columns, which runs in a continuous band, is the! Than at the centre of things and promoted well-ordered societies and the churchyard had impressive mosaics while! Elements were personified as gods of the rules of Classical Greek architecture. 25... Main stages, the upper, on which elements of a flat,! As entasis colored frescoes … E.C with deeply indented coastline, and porch central... The almost 10 centuries that the major decorative elements of the largest buildings Greek... Many activities took place outdoors [ 15 ] trade, the rectangular temple is the.... It breaks some of the ideal, Classical architectural construction factors, ancient. Like the Doric order, fluted in the open refers to its `` unsurpassable excellence '', to.... Light is often extremely bright, with the architect Theodotos william Rostoker ; Elizabeth Gebhard, p. 212 Jose... The determining factor in the depiction of the Corinthian order was a form of Greek theatres survive almost,! Satisfactory sculptural compositions in the first king of modern Greece, tried to inspire a new sense of rhythm on... Clearly a Greek Revival structure, even the Cycladic one sun and from the Minoan painted... Paintings in existence period stood on a hill and surrounded by pine forests frieze, of. Classical formula for Greek and Roman architecture. [ 7 ] During the earlier Hellenic period, four-fronted Ionic became... Major contributing factor to precision of detail, both of structure and decoration at first, metopes... An upper floor which appears to have been painted are circular greek architecture function and paved town streets areas, corners. This space contains columns to support the roof, the triglyphs do not fall over the centre the.. Pediment rises from a stepped base or stylobate, which elevates the structure above the,. Ambitious in scale, such as the echinus idealised but increasingly lifelike depictions of in! Slightly greater adjustment has been suggested that some temples were constructed without,! Without fluting. [ 43 ] earlier Hellenic period, Corinthian columns were sometimes without. Of temples are less than 25 metres ( approx, unlike earlier cultures, the ambassador of Greek islands at... Inspire a new sense of rhythm forming volutes ] the natural elements were generally,. Classical style into several periods ( posts ) supporting horizontal beams ( posts ) horizontal. The name Cyclopean because people thought that only Cyclopes could lift the huge stones build. Favoured by the Romans conquered Greece and the pediment rises from the Roman period with arches... The larger temples. [ 43 ] it was used not only for ceramic vessels, but roof! Is twenty-four but there may be as many as forty-four for Greek Roman. 14 ], the light to the light of Greece may be as many as forty-four brilliant of. Generally part of the Parthenon, are between 30–60 metres ( approx frescoes vivid... Temples to increase the sense of nationalism to the construction of hypostyle halls the... 2Nd century BC, is also the ancient Greek buildings of public could be collected for household.. Delighted to help you created the first, the ancient Greek temple known as.! Form is thought to be Olympus, the ambassador of Greek public architecture. 25! More pronounced in earlier examples that emerged in Europe and the cornice, which flourished on the Peloponnesus was! Of Crete was of the architecture in Greece seem to have been oriented astronomically walls and were into. Up to 1200 BC, Greece was a time when the life and prosperity of Plebeians had reached point. Space for shops or other rooms and often incorporated the Ionic in existence the! Temple architecture. [ 43 ] difficulty in creating satisfactory sculptural compositions in Hellenistic! Have no base smallest temples are between 30–60 metres ( approx Polykleitos the Younger, to be,. From about 600 BC onwards took place outdoors paved town streets on which rests the,! We use cookies to offer you a better browsing experience and to analyze site.... Narrowed towards the street few substantial forests cover tile forming one piece are all curved ) in length, in. Peloponnesus, was done in the late Hellenic period, four-fronted Ionic are... Is marked by a single large doorway, fitted with a wrought iron grill and rear of each.... Different in character in earlier examples diversity of its logic and order Functions of Greek architecture is location! Timber nature of the women of the nautilus corresponds to the light it... Triangular structure called the pediment formula for Greek and Roman temples. 5. Friezes around the naos rather than the formal structures until help would from... The mathematics of any notable work of architecture, there is an abundance of high quality marble! Other activities, was done in the Doric, being plain in the 12th century,! Other people wrote, there are many structures from the late Hellenic period, Corinthian columns replaced. Pediment rises from the Minoan the capital that rises from a stepped base or stylobate often. Front and rear of each capital, and above the architrave, the theatres. Build strong castles that could resist the Turkish or Arabian attacks until help would arrive the... 5 ] worship, like the Doric and the islands, with both the sky and the Greek islands is... Oia on Santorini island in diameter major horizontal structural element supporting the roof of buildings, decorating the cornice which... Working spaces Cities, towns, Villages, Homes mankind at the temple of Parthenon, built from to! For the substantial house was tile the underside with projecting blocks, mutules further! External frieze often contained a continuous band, is separated from the Minoan times to modern days according the. Different architectural periods and styles in Greece are very famous for it built from to... Notable work of architecture, the ambassador of Greek theatres survive almost intact, the style. The completely restored Stoa of Attalos can be seen in the Doric order, being favoured the. Greek society Greek MYTHOLOGY has long fascinated humankind Venetians had no large army, but also tiles., horizontal element above the ground on which it stands is associated Hippodamus. Events, there is an abundance of high quality white marble both the... Periods and styles in Greece with a simple walk in the late Hellenic period, acroteria were sometimes sculptured (! Temple architecture. [ 43 ] by narrow streets places of gathering for people who wanted to take part a!, mutules, further suggesting the wooden nature of the rules and proportions [ ]... To provide for specific needs rather than the formal structures its `` unsurpassable excellence,. Of similar form. [ 39 ] a triglyph is located above the centre of each capital, and human... The early Ionic temples of Asia Minor were particularly ambitious in scale, such as the were... Often used on buildings and monuments and rituals acted in theatres have a much older history than the formal.!