Repeated actions - criticism With a frequency adverb, this use is similar to the use of present continuous to express annoyance. This fish tastes awful! We'll be 3leaving towards the end of August, and our aim there is to visit as 4many countries as we can. Where were you? d) People asked me the way three times. Flag this item for. ..B.b) When I got to the cinema Jack had been waiting/was waiting for mec) We would always have/were always having breakfast in bed on Sundaysd) Mary was always falling/always fell ill before important examinationse) My sister used to own/would own a motorcycle and sidecarf) Pay no attention to Dave's remarks. According to our information, you (2) (answer) a telephone survey last month, as a result of which your name (3) (enter) in the holiday draw. Mary is on the point of resigning. • Ending a sentence with a preposition It is possible to end a sentence with a preposition in a sentence where a prepositional verb is made passive. A Borgaro T.se, Turin 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 109 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1, Contents Vlll IntroductionGrammar 1 Present time 14Grammar 2 Basic contrasts: present simple and present continuous 21Grammar 3 State verbs and event (action or dynamic) verbsGrammar 4 State verbs normally without a continuous form 33 Difference of meaning in stative and active verbs 40 Other uses of present continuous Other uses of present simple Future time Basic contrasts: will, going to, present continuous Future continuous Future perfect Other ways of referring to the future Other future references Past time Basic contrasts: past simple and past continuous Past perfect simple and continuous Used to and would Unfulfilled past events Polite forms Contrast with present perfect Present perfect Present perfect simple Present perfect continuous Contrast of present perfect simple and present perfect continuous Time expressions with present perfectGrammar 6 Passive 1Grammar 7 Basic uses Using and not mentioning the agent Passive 2 Have and get something done, need doir, Passiveget Reporting verbs Verbs with prepositions Common contexts for the passive iii, ADVANCED LANGUAGE PRACTICE Grammar 8 Conditionals 46 Grammar 9 Basic usage: truths, real situations, hypothetical situations (present 54 and past) Variations: if only, unless, and other alternatives to if, past events with results in the present, should, were to, happen to, if it were not for, if it hadn't been for Other ways of making a conditional sentence: supposing, otherwise, but for, if so, if not, colloquial omission of if, if and adjectives, if meaning although Unreal time and subjunctives It's time, it's high time Wishes I'd rather and I'd sooner, I'd prefer As if, as though Suppose and imagine Formalsubjunctives Formulaic subjunctive Grammar 11 Modals: present and future 65 Grammar 12 Don't have to and must not: absence of obligation, obligation not to do something Should: expectation, recommendation, criticism of an action, uncertainty with verbs of thinking, with be and adjectives describing chance after in case to emphasise unlikelihood Could: possibility or uncertainty, with comparative adjectives to express possibility or impossibility, suggestions, unwillingness Can: criticism, capability Must and can't: certainty, present time reference only May and might: although clauses, may/might as well, possibility or uncertainty with try Shall: certainty, what the speaker wants to happen Will: assumption, intention, refuse and insist Would: annoying habits, certainty Need: need to not a modal, need partly a modal Related non-modal expressions: had better, be bound to Modals: past 72 Had to and must have: past obligation, past certainty Should have and ought to have: expectation, criticism of an action, should have and verbs of thinking, with be and adjectives describing chance, polite expressions Could have: past possibility or uncertainty, with comparative adjectives, unwillingness Could: past permission or ability, compared with could have May have and can't have: certainty, with surely Would not: unwillingness Would have: events in the past which did not happen, assumptions Needn't have and didn't need to: unnecessary actions done and not done Adverbs and modals: well, easily, obviously, really, justIV, Grammar 13 Inversion CONTENTSGrammar 14 Inversion Inversion after negative adverbials 78 Inversion after so/such with that 85 Inverted conditional sentences without if Emphasis Changing word order to change focus Adding words for emphasis Other meansGrammar 16 Reported speech 97 Problems: reported speech with modals, with conditionals, don't think 104 Reporting verbs 111 Functions: verbs that describe a function, verbs that describe actions Changes of viewpoint 118Grammar 17 Articles Definite article (the), indefinite article (a/an), zero article Translation problemsGrammar 18 Relative and non-finite clauses Defining and non-defining clauses Which and that Who, whom, and whose When and where Omitting the relative pronoun Omitting which/who + be Clauses beginning with what and whatever Non-finite clauses containing an -ing formGrammar 19 Verbs + infinitive or -ing Verbs followed by either -ing or infinitive with to Verbs with an object, followed by either -ing or infinitive with to Verbs normally followed by infinitive with to Verbs normally followed by -ing Verbs followed by infinitive without to Verbs followed by an object and toGrammar 21 Verbs + prepositions 131Grammar 22 Verbs followed by: in, for, of, with, from, on, against, about, out, at, to 138 Prepositions Following adjectives: of, about, with, at, on, to, by, for, in, from Following nouns: on, to, over, with, for Expressions beginning: in, with, at, on, beyond, by, for, out of, under, without, within, after, ADVANCED LANGUAGE PRACTICE Grammar 23 Phrasal verbs 1 144 Grammar 24 Add up to get up to 150 Grammar 25 156 Phrasal verbs 2 Give away to put up with Phrasal verbs 3 Rip off to work out Grammar 27 Linking words and phrases 167 Grammar 28 Text organisers: adding a point, developing a point, contrast, 172 explaining reasons, making generalisations, giving new information Punctuation and spelling Common errors Problem words Words with similar spelling but different meanings Punctuation: commas, apostrophes, colons and semi-colons Grammar 30 Further Practice 182 Vocabulary ~T Leisure activities 188 Vocabulary 2 Travel and movement 192 Vocabulary 3 News events 196 Vocabulary 4 Places 200 Vocabulary 5 Media and advertising 204 Vocabulary 6 The natural world 208 Vocabulary 7 Work 211 Vocabulary 8 Business and money 215 Vocabulary 9 People and relationships 219 Vocabulary 10 Social problems 223 Vocabulary 11 Entertainment 227 Vocabulary 12 Government and society 231 Vocabulary 13 Health and the body 235VI, Vocabulary 14 World issues CONTENTSVocabulary 15 Thinking and feelingVocabulary 16 Technology 239Vocabulary 17 Quality and quantity 243Vocabulary 18 Education 247Vocabulary 19 Word formation 250Vocabulary 20 Multiple meaning 254 258 262 1 Expressions with come, expressions with in, idioms based on hand, 265 wood and metal, prefix un-, verbs of movement 268 2 Expressions with get, colour idioms, expressions with 271 see, suffix -ful, common expressions, expressions with out 274 277 3 Expressions with on, expressions with one, expressions with break, 280 sounds, words with more than one meaning, words connected with memory 283 286 4 Formality, expressions with no, expressions with head, words 289 connected with people, expressions with make, compound words 292 295 5 Size, suffixes, headline language, expressions with once, body 297 movements, expressions with at 313 322 6 Expressions with set, places, words with more than one meaning, speaking, expressions with within, adjective suffix -ing vii 7 Expressions with by, idioms with parts of the body, adjective-noun collocations, expressions with have, verbs of seeing, expressions with do 8 Collocations of nouns linked with of, size, expressions with bring, feelings, prefix well, expressions with from 9 Adverbs, expressions with think, expressions with give, modifiers, words with more than one meaning, but10 Expressions with put, expressions with run, prefix under-, names, expressions with call, verbs with up Index Grammar answers Vocabulary answers Words and phrases answers, The revised edition of this book is designed with a greater emphasis on text and collocation, in keeping with recent trends in the world of English as a Foreign Language. 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